Achieving a Negative Fluid Balance
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Volume overload is very common in the later stages of critical illness, and achieving a negative fluid balance is key to helping patients liberate from mechanical ventilation and ultimately recover. I outline strategies for minimizing ins (avoid MIVF, use high concentration drips, switch IV to PO) and maximizing outs (stepwise diuresis with loop diuretics, thiazides, spironolactone, and acetazolamide). I also discuss special circumstances including cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, and hypoalbuminemia.